National attention shifted away from the South and the activities of the Klan, but African Americans remained trapped in a world of white supremacy that restricted their economic, social, and political rights. LMAs and their ceremonies created new holidays during which white southerners could reaffirm their allegiance to the Confederacy and express their opposition to Black rights. Tensions between northerners and southerners over styles of worship and educational requirements strained these associations. How did Plessy v. Ferguson make the fight against segregation more difficult? Women like Nannie Helen Burroughs and Virginia Broughton, leaders of the Baptist Womans Convention, worked to protect Black women from sexual violence from white men. How do you summon no AI mobs in Minecraft? For all of their differences, white and Black southern women faced a similar challenge during Reconstruction. In 1859 and 1860, wealthy southern planters were flush after producing record cotton crops. Reconstruction, the print seems to argue, will form a more perfect Union that upholds the ideals of the American Revolution, most importantly (as seen on a streaming banner near the top) that All men are born free and equal. John Giles Lawrence, Reconstruction, 1867.Library of Congress. Meanwhile, Rutherford B. Hayes, a Republican, won a landslide victory in the Ohio gubernatorial election without mentioning Reconstruction, focusing instead on fighting corruption and alcohol abuse and promoting economic recovery. After attempting to remove Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, in violation of the new Tenure of Office Act, Johnson had been impeached by the House of Representatives in 1868. Reconstruction Amendments? They couldn't force labor in the way they were previously able to. . But the war did prove beneficial to wealthy northern farmers who could afford new technologies. With the Compromise of 1877, army intervention in the South ceased and Republican control collapsed in the last three state governments in the South. Universal suffrage, she argued, would not so clearly address the complex difficulties posed by racial, economic, and gender inequality.24. Violence shattered the dream of biracial democracy. led to short-lived revolutions in the concept of citizenship Why was reconstruction a failure? Americans from voting, which then reduced the likelihood of black politicians winning office. Why was it hard for sharecroppers to escape the debt cycle? Many free African Americans, particularly those in South Carolina, Virginia, and Louisiana, were wealthy and well educated, two facts that distinguished them from much of the white population both before and after the Civil War. BENDER's post According to the Freedman, Posted 2 years ago. Military rule in the South; Democrats regaining power in southern states; African Americans losing rights they, Explain how Republicans began to lose power, Scandals during Republican President Grant's term led. Many southern governments enacted legislation that reestablished antebellum power relationships. Black southern voters helped Grant win most of the former Confederacy. 15 of January 1865, which set aside a large swath of land along the coast of South Carolina and Georgia for the exclusive settlement of Black families, and by the Freedmens Bureau Act of March, which authorized the bureau to rent or sell land in its possession to former slaves. Why did the Southern Democrats implement Jim Crow segregation? Moving into political office was a natural continuation of the leadership roles they had held in their former communities. This print depicts a huge parade held in Baltimore, Maryland, on May 19, 1870, surrounded by portraits of abolitionists and scenes of African Americans exercising their rights. Many of these independent churches were quickly organized into regional, state, and even national associations, often by brigades of free Black northerners and midwesterners who went to the South to help the freedmen. Grant was reelected in 1872 in the most peaceful election of the period. Many of these codes defined anyone who wasn't under a labor Many freedpeople rushed to solemnize unions with formal wedding ceremonies. What was one result of the end of Reconstruction in the South? and in voting rights, but those rights had all but evaporated by the end of the century. The end of Reconstruction was a staggered process, and the period of Republican control ended at different times in different states. This "separate but equal" rule was in effect until the 1950s. Andrew Johnson attempted to return the Southern states to essentially the condition they were in before the American Civil War, Republicans in Congress passed laws and amendments that affirmed the equality of all men before the law and prohibited racial discrimination, that made African Americans full U.S. citizens, and that forbade laws to prevent African Americans from voting. Table.This table shows the military districts of the seceded states of the South, the date the state was readmitted into the Union, and the date when conservatives recaptured the state house. Because most African Americans in the South were very poor, they could not afford to pay poll taxes that most white people could pay. Proponents of the Lost Cause tried to rewrite the history of the antebellum South to deemphasize the brutality of slavery. Many did not like what they saw, especially given the possibility of racial equality. Ladies Memorial Associations (LMAs) grew out of the Soldiers Aid Society and became the precursor and custodian of the Lost Cause narrative. To Blacks, freedom meant independence from white control. defined the 14th Amendment very narrowly in the late 19th ratified in 1870, extended the right to vote to black men. Specific factors which finally ended the Reconstruction Era included the disputes surrounding the 1876 presidential election, increasing violence by the Ku Klux As the war dragged on, inflation also hit the North. The AERA was split over whether Black male suffrage should take precedence over universal suffrage, given the political climate of the South. The Depression of 1873 crushed the nations already suffering laboring class and destroyed whatever remaining idealism northerners had about Reconstruction. But the aftermath of the war left portions of the Confederacy in ruins. For instance, some LMAs celebrated the anniversary of Stonewall Jacksons death on May 10.27 Through these activities, southern women took on political roles in the South. It established the supremacy of the federal government over the states, It brought the states of the Union back together; Amnesty was granted to most southerners who had fought for the Confederacy, Former Confederates kept their property and participated in political process; Slavery was ended, African Americans were recognized as citizens of the United States, All citizens were granted equal treatment under the law, The Freedman's Bureau built more than 1,000 schools for African Americans, including colleges and universities, Poll taxes and literacy tests limited African Americans' ability to vote -Jim Crow laws enforced segregation in public places, including schools -Some restaurants and public places refused to serve African Americans at all; Segregation laws challenged in federal Court. What was Ulysses S. Grants policy regarding Reconstruction? economic nor physical freedom. Almost 800 African American men served as state legislators around the South, with African Americans at one time making up a majority in the South Carolina House of Representatives.11. Currier & Ives, First Colored Senator and Representatives in the 41st and 42nd Congress of the United States, 1872.Library of Congress. But white conservatives chafed at the influx of Black residents and the establishment of biracial politics. . But the United States never committed the personnel required to restore order and guarantee Black southerners the rights promised by the Fourteenth Amendment. Presidential Reconstruction, from 1865 to 1867, required little of the former Confederate states and leaders. When Black Americans and their radical allies succeeded in securing citizenship for freedpeople, a new fight commenced to determine the legal, political, and social implications of American citizenship. 5. Johnson offered a pardon to all Southern whites except Confederate leaders and wealthy planters (although most of these subsequently received individual pardons), restoring their political rights and all property except slaves. African American women continued participating in federal Decoration Day ceremonies and, later, formed their own club organizations. VI. Most enslavers sought to maintain control over their formerly enslaved laborers through sharecropping contracts. Once cotton production resumed, Americans found that their cotton now competed with new cotton plantations around the world. Well, their economic self-sufficiency went through some ups and downs. While it is difficult to differentiate Klan actions from those of similar groups, such as the White Line, the Knights of the White Camellia, and the White Brotherhood, the distinctions hardly matter. Direct link to Goodbad's post When showing the amendmen, Posted 2 years ago. Stanton and Anthony formed the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA), while suffragists who supported the Fifteenth Amendment, regardless of its limitations, founded the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA). Despite the enduring presence of Reconstruction in those states, white conservatives organized violence and fraud with impunity. What happened at the end of Reconstruction quizlet? By the end of Reconstruction, the desire for self-definition, economic independence, and racial pride coalesced in the founding of dozens of Black towns across the South. Although it established national citizenship for all persons born or naturalized in the United States, the amendment also introduced the word male into the Constitution for the first time. Black churches provided centralized leadership and organization in post-emancipation communities. . African American officeholders came from diverse backgrounds. The town celebrated African American cultural and economic achievements during their annual festival, Mound Bayou Days. what it means to be free. Similar conflicts raged across the South. For instance, Reconstruction could have simply followed the law of conquest, which is to say that the federal government, having triumphed by brute force, was free to impose any settlement on the South it liked, from mass executions to ethnic cleansing. The foundation of southern society had been shaken, but southern whites used Black Codes and racial terrorism to reassert control over formerly enslaved people. In certain locations with large populations of African Americans, such as South Carolina, freedpeople continued to hold some local offices for several years. Mississippis vagrant law required all freedmen to carry papers proving they had means of employment.6 If they had no proof, they could be arrested and fined. Why did southern Democrats agree to the Compromise of 1877? Victory did not produce a sudden economic boom for the rest of the United States, either. This new relationship created a political backlash, especially in the West and South, against Washingtons perceived eastern and industrial bias. The factories and farms of the North successfully supplied Union troops, while the federal government, with some adjustments, found the means to pay for war. The era witnessed perhaps the most open and widespread discussions of citizenship since the nations founding. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Whites probably had access to better education, jobs, and facilities. Were African Americans in towns and cities struggling with poverty as well? The lines between refined white womanhood and degraded enslaved Black femaleness were no longer so clearly defined. White southerners initially opposed the Redeemers and instead clung tightly to white supremacy and the Confederacy, but between 1869 and 1871, the Redeemers won support from white southerners by promising local rule by white Democrats, rather than Black or white Republicans. Rival governments arose claiming to recognize Tilden as the rightfully elected president. Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina would determine the president. The biggest threat to Republican power in the South had been the violence and intimidation of white Democrats. For example, public schools for African Americans were almost always inferior to schools for whites. Fourteen men served in the House of Representatives. These incidents sometimes were reported to local federal authorities like the army or the Freedmens Bureau, but more often than not such violence was unreported and unprosecuted.31. Southern prosperity relied on over four million enslaved African American to grow cotton, along with a number of other staple crops across the region. It was a moment of revolutionary possibility and violent backlash. era, the 13th Amendment, which ended the system of slavery in 1865, the 14th Amendment, which Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. At the bottom, Johnson is trying to charm aConfederate Copperhead. On the eve of the 1876 presidential election, the nation still reeled from depression. The second document, demonstrates one way that white Southerners denied these claims. South Carolina and Mississippi passed laws known as Black Codes to regulate Black behavior and impose social and economic control. the women's suffrage movement. What is reconstruction and the end of history? With the election results contested, a federal special electoral commission voted along party lineseight Republicans for, seven Democrats againstin favor of Hayes. Above all, freedpeople wanted freedom to control their families.15. The Court said a law could require "separate" facilities, so long as they were "equal." In what became known as the Compromise of 1877, Democrats conceded the presidency to Hayes on the condition that all remaining troops would be removed from the South and the South would receive special economic favors. The Rebels imprisoned my Husband. The Confederate surrender at Appomattox Court House and the subsequent adoption by the U.S. Congress of the Thirteenth Amendment destroyed the institution of American slavery and threw southern society into disarray. During a brief period in the Reconstruction era, African Americans voted in large numbers and held public office at almost every level, including in both houses of Congress. They didn't have control of their bodies or of their labor. At the national level, new laws and constitutional amendments permanently altered the federal system and the definition of American citizenship. In reality, how different were definitions of freedom, citizenship, and democracy before and after Reconstruction? The 15th Amendment radically Before the end of slavery, African Americans had neither Reconstruction ended with the compromise of 1877 which was between republicans and democrats. Six weeks later, on July 9, 1868, the states ratified the Fourteenth Amendment, guaranteeing birthright citizenship and equal protection of the laws. Would they be conquered territories or equal states? Not until the 1960s, in the civil rights movement, sometimes called the second Reconstruction, would the country again attempt to fulfill the political and social agenda of Reconstruction. would the 14th Amendment become an important tool at least in theory. The Ku Klux Klan was just one of a number of vigilante groups that arose after the war to terrorize African Americans and Republicans throughout the South. This cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. Okay, first let's look at Reconstruction was a success in that it restored the United States as a unified nation: by 1877, all of the former Confederate states had drafted new constitutions, acknowledged the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments, and pledged their loyalty to the U.S. government. Why did southern Democrats agree to the Compromise of 1877? If they had no proof, they could be arrested, fined, or even re-enslaved and leased out to their former enslaver. the number of US citizens and it decoupled The federal government responded to southern paramilitary tactics by passing the Enforcement Acts between 1870 and 1871. They also created the myth that the Civil War was fought over states rights instead of slavery, which was the actual cause. One of those was the election of African Americans to local, state, and national offices, including both houses of Congress. Some Republicans, like U.S. congressman Thaddeus Stevens, believed in racial equality, but the majority were motivated primarily by the interest of their political party. Do you think the Civil War ended in sectionalism? [Richmond, Va. Crippled locomotive, Richmond & Petersburg Railroad depot], c. 1865.Library of Congress. Reconstruction came to an end as a direct result of too many Southerners opposing the reconstruction. When all efforts for reconstruction were met with a battle, the spirits of the Northerners to reconstruct the South began to wane because they did not want to constantly be met with confrontation while trying to reconstruct the area. After the Civil War had been fought and black people were granted the right to vote as true citizens of the United States, there were many people in the South Radicalism had its limits, and the Republican Partys commitment to economic stability eclipsed their interest in racial justice. However, the bureau also instituted courts where African Americans could seek redress if their employers were abusing them or not paying them. After the war, he contacted his formerly enslaved laborer Jourdon Anderson, offering him a job opportunity. How old did the males have to be to join the militia? The Democrats wanted to end Reconstruction and the, Hayes won presidency and removed all federal troops in the South, Tilden won the popular vote but not the electoral vote Johnson andReconstruction cartoon, 1866, This print mocksReconstruction by makingseveral allusions to Shakespeare. In which region did Tilden have the most support? Perhaps most striking of all, in the vast agricultural wealth of the South, many southerners struggled to find enough to eat. How would they rebuild their governments, economies, and social systems? The second defined all persons born in the United States as national citizens, who were to enjoy equality before the law. To their enslavers, these people constituted their most valuable assets, worth roughly $3 billion.36 Yet this wealth obscured the gains in infrastructure, industrial production, and financial markets that occurred north of the Mason-Dixon Line, a fact that the war would unmask for all to see. Reconstruction ended in 1877 because of a variety of reasons. These laws granted some rights to African Americans, like the right to own property, to marry, or to make contracts. The KKK brought violence into the voting polls, the workplace, and as seen in this Harpers Weekly print the homes of Black Americans. The stage was set for an election that would end Reconstruction as a national issue. Frances Harper, for example, a freeborn Black woman living in Ohio, urged them to consider their own privilege as white and middle class. children of Asian immigrants were citizens. White lawmakers forbade Black men from serving on juries or in state militias, refused to recognize Black testimony against white people, apprenticed orphaned children to their former enslaver, and established severe vagrancy laws. In 1860, only five states in the North allowed African Americans to vote on equal terms with whites. An extensive network of banks and financial markets helped aggregate capital that could be reinvested into further growth. for civil rights activists to break down segregation. Congress refused to seat the representatives and senators elected from the Southern states and in early 1866 passed the Freedmens Bureau and Civil Rights Bills. White supremacist organizations that committed terrorist acts, such as the Ku Klux Klan, targeted local Republican leaders for beatings or assassination. In December 1863, less than a year after he issued the Emancipation Proclamation, Pres. Meanwhile, this washerwoman and others like her set wages and hours for themselves, and in many cases began to take washing into their own homes in order to avoid the surveillance of white women and the sexual threat posed by white men.28. Did the Ku Klux do wrong? Former slaves of every age took advantage of the opportunity to become literate. Some, like Antoine Dubuclet of Louisiana and William Breedlove from Virginia, owned enslaved laborers before the Civil War. One of the most significant accomplishments of these conventions was the establishment of a public school system. You are ready to say they did and we will not argue the point with you. Blacks hopes that the federal government would provide them with land had been raised by Gen. William T. Shermans Field Order No. citizenship was exclusively the privilege of white Americans. The first extended the life of an agency Congress had created in 1865 to oversee the transition from slavery to freedom. How did many freedmen and whites become locked in a cycle of poverty? They won particular influence during Ulysses S. Grants first term as president (18681872). the United States faced during Reconstruction, the . After the Civil War, much of the South lay in ruins. Republicans and Democrats responded to economic uncertainty by retreating from Reconstruction. Because he did not believe African Americans deserved equal rights, President Johnson opposed the passage of the Fourteenth Amendment and vetoed the Civil Rights Act. Unsurprisingly, these were also the places that were exempted from the liberating effects of the Emancipation Proclamation. to own their own bodies and labor, but that was about it. Although Johnson narrowly escaped conviction in the Senate, Congress won the power to direct a new phase of Reconstruction. that they couldn't choose where to work or earn Petition of E. Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Lucy Stone, Antoinette Brown Blackwell, and Others Asking for an Amendment of the Constitution that Shall Prohibit the Several States from Disfranchising Any of Their Citizens on the Ground of Sex, 1865.National Archives and Records Administration. The pass system kept Black Americans hoped that the end of the Civil War would create an entirely new world, while white southerners tried to restore the antebellum order as much as they could. They actively sought industrial development, northern investment, and internal improvements. Reconstruction Amendments change definitions of freedom, End of Reconstruction; fewer rights for African Americans; end to military rule in the South. WebThe end of Reconstruction was a staggered process, and the period of Republican control ended at different times in different states. The Fifteenth Amendment prohibited discrimination in voting rights on the basis of race, color, or previous status (i.e. An example is the DC-3 Aircraft, which began flying before the regulations for that kind of structure was declared insufficiently stable. women filled the power vacuum that reconstruction had created. physical and economic freedom change after the 13th While the fight for womens rights stalled during the war, it sprung back to life as Anthony, Stanton, and others formed the American Equal Rights Association. Churches were often the largest building in town and served as community centers. Sallie Adkins of Warren County, Georgia, was traveling with her husband, Joseph, a Georgia state senator, when he was assassinated by Klansmen on May 10, 1869. None of this is to suggest that the Norths superior ability to supply its war machine made the outcome of the war inevitable. The 14th Amendment, ratified in 1868, led to a huge increase in While no one could agree on what the best plan for reconstructing the nation would be, Americans understood the moment as critical and perhaps revolutionary. Gertrude Clanton, a plantation mistress before the war, disliked cooking and washing dishes, so she hired an African American woman to do the washing. That's a great question Richy. The acts also deemed violent Klan behavior as acts of rebellion against the United States and allowed for the use of U.S. troops to protect freedpeople. In the case of Plessy v. Ferguson, the Court ruled in favor of a Louisiana law requiring segregated railroad cars. In the 1930s, nearly 40 percent of 663 Black churches surveyed had their organizational roots in the post-emancipation era.18 Many independent Black churches emerged in the rural areas, and most of them had never been affiliated with white churches. To really answer this question, we need to examine continuity and change in the Reconstruction era. What was a major Performance cookies are used to understand and analyze the key performance indexes of the website which helps in delivering a better user experience for the visitors. The end of Reconstruction was a staggered process, and the period of Republican control ended at different times in different states. Racial violence in the Reconstruction period took three major forms: riots against Black political authority, interpersonal fights, and organized vigilante groups. The Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 freed African Americans in rebel states, and after the Civil War, the Thirteenth Amendment emancipated all U.S. slaves wherever they were. In 1875, the Supreme Court addressed this constitutional argument: acknowledging womens citizenship but arguing that suffrage was not a right guaranteed to all citizens. Congressional investigator Carl Schurz reported that in the summer of 1865, southerners shared a near unanimous sentiment that You cannot make the negro work, without physical compulsion.30 Violence had been used in the antebellum period to enforce slave labor and to define racial difference. money from their own work. WebAmong other things, the Klan trials reveal the great expansion of the jurisdiction of the federal courts during Reconstruction.